Articles

IMAM ABUL QASIM MUHAMMAD IBN ‘ALI

Feb 20

Written by: Dr. Hassan Uddin Hashmi
2/20/2014 3:31 AM  RssIcon

Name: Muhammad.
Surname: Abul Qasim.
Year of birth: 13 AH.
Place of Birth: Madinah.
Father: Imam ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib.
Mother: Khawlah al-Hanafiyyah.
Date of demise: Shawwal 7, 73 AH.
Age: 60 Years.
Place of burial: 
Khark Island,
Iran, Persian Gulf.
      

       Imam Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali was one of the 14 sons of Imam ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib. He was younger to Imam Hasan and Imam Husain and elder to remaining 11 of his siblings. The lineage of Imam ‘Ali commenced from five of his sons, namely Imam Hasan, Imam Husain, Imam Abul Qasim Muhammad, ‘Abbas and ‘Umar.1
       The fourteen brothers were born to different mothers. Imam Hasan and Imam Husain were born to Fatimah al-Zahra, the dearest daughter of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), while Imam Abul Qasim Muhammad was born to Khawlah al- Hanafiyyah bint Ja’far ibn Qais.
2
       Khawlah al-Hanafiyyah belonged to the famous tribe of Banu Hanifah. She was born in a distinguished family of this tribe. She was a dignified, honorable and the most beautiful young woman.
3

       In 10th year of Hijrah, a Yemeni tribe Banu Zubaid attacked the tribe of Banu Hanifah and captured some of its members as captives, and took them to Yemen. Khawlah al-Hanafiyyah was also among the captives. Meanwhile, the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) received news about the rebellion of Banu Zubaid under leadership of ‘Amr ibn Ma’dikarab against the Muslim Government. The Holy Prophet in the same year (10 AH), dispatched Imam ‘Ali to Yemen to deal with this insurgency.

       Imam ‘Ali confronted Banu Zubaid and defeated the insurgent tribe. Many of them fled from that area while others could not. Imam ‘Ali entered their fort victoriously and found there some people. Among those left-behind were also the captives of Banu Hanifah including Khawlah al-Hanafiyyah. When Imam ‘Ali saw her he was attracted to her, and chose her for himself. Then he brought her to Madinah and honored her by giving her residence in his home.4
       One day, when the Holy Prophet visited Imam ‘Ali's residence, he saw Khawlah al-Hanafiyyah and looked at her with a smiling face and said: “O ‘Ali, listen, certainly, you would marry her after my departure from this world, and she would give birth to your son. You should name him after my name and you should give him my surname. And this would be my gift to him.”
5      

       Later, the Prophet repeated the same message to Imam ‘Ali in the following words: “After my departure a son would be born to you, I am giving him my name as well as my surname.”                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Another time, the Prophet repeated his message again and addressed Imam ‘Ali by the following words: “If a son is born to you after I have departed, you should name him after my name and you should give him the same surname that I have. This permission is exclusively for you and not for other people.”7
       Imam ‘Ali once wanted that some other people could hear directly the Prophet’s special permission about name and surname of his son to be born in future, therefore he asked the Prophet in the presence of some people: “O Messenger of Allah, if a son is born to me after you have departed from this visible world should I name him after your name, and should I give him the same surname as of yours?” The Prophet responded emphatically: “Yes.”
8
       Soon after that the Prophet departed from the visible world. After his departure, his closest companion Abu Bakr al-Siddiq became the Caliph of Muslims. He got involved in a conflict with the insurgents of Banu Hanifah. This conflict is known as the war of Yamamah. After the conclusion of the war, a delegation of Banu Hanifah came to Madinah to see the Caliph of Muslims. There they saw Khawlah al-Hanafiyyah and recognized her. They met Imam ‘Ali and informed him about her lineage, dignity and nobility. Imam ‘Ali acknowledged it and granted her full freedom rights. When it took place, before that the first wife of Imam ‘Ali, Fatimah al-Zahra, the dearest daughter of the Prophet had passed away. Subsequently, Imam ‘Ali proposed to Khawlah al-Hanafiyyah and married her.
9

       In 13th AH, Khawlah al-Hanafiyyah gave birth to Imam ‘Ali’s that son about whom the Holy Prophet had already prophesied some two years ago.10 Imam ‘Ali named him Muhammad and gave him the surname of Abul Qasim. Thus he delivered to his son the gift that the Prophet had left for him. He was the only son of his mother. Khawlah had no child born to her other than him.

       Imam Abul Qasim Muhammad loved his name and surname very much because they were a special gift given to him by none other than Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), the Chief of all the Prophets and the Leader of all the Messengers of Allah. This gift was delivered to him by his father ‘Ali al-Murtada, the Commander of the Believers and the Leader of the Pious ones. He would advise people to call him by the name of Muhammad and by the surname of Abul Qasim and not by any other title.

       Imam Abul Qasim Muhammad was also popularly known by the title of  “Mahdi” (a guided person to the right path). His devotees would address him during their greeting: “Pease be on you O Mahdi”. His response to these people was indicative of his magnanimity, he used to say: “Yes, I am Mahdi. I invite people to righteousness and piety. My name is the name of Allah’s Prophet and my surname is the surname of Allah’s Prophet. When any of you offers greeting to me he should say: “Peace be on you O Muhammad, and peace be on you O Abul Qasim.”11
       Imam Abul Qasim Muhammad was a dignified and handsome man. His eyes were beautiful, big, brown and awe-inspiring. His face was round and brimful. His features were graceful. He had black hair. His height was medium, neither short nor tall. His skin color was light brown and fair. He had a stockily built muscular body. He was a man of dignity and solemnity. He had a very charming, charismatic and commanding personality.
       During the life time of his father Imam ‘Ali, Imam Abul Qasim Muhammad spent almost all of his time in his companionship, in home and in mosque, in privacy and in public, in the circle of teaching and in the assembly of preaching, in the congregation of friends and in the crowd of rivals, and in the climate of peace and in the field of war, always Abul Qasim Muhammad was with his beloved father Imam ‘Ali.
       Being a son of Imam ‘Ali, the stature of Imam Abul Qasim was of high rank, and his character was a treasury of wonderful qualities. Along with this, he was bestowed upon from the Divine Power some noble opportunities that increased his qualities in dignity and glory.
       Imam Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali’s birth place was the holy city of Madinah, the center of Islam and the cradle of Faith. He was born in 13th year of Hijrah during the caliphate of Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, the first Caliph of Muslims. Imam Abul Qasim had the privilege to see the time of ‘Umar al-Faruq, the second Caliph of Muslims. During the time of ‘Uthman Dhu al-Nurain, the third Caliph of Muslims, Imam Abul Qasim was a grown up man. He saw that era very closely. Then his father Imam ‘Ali, the Commander of the Believers, was elected as a fourth Caliph of Muslims. Imam Abul Qasim was the right hand of Imam ‘Ali. He had round the clock company with his father, and was very diligently involved in the activities of this period. After martyrdom of Imam ‘Ali he saw the time of his two elder brothers, Imam Hasan and Imam Husain about whom the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “They are my two flowers from this world.”
12 Imam Abul Qasim spent twenty years all together in their company. These golden opportunities elevated his qualities to the peak of greatness; and made him a splendid luminary of knowledge, spirituality, piety and good character.    
       Imam Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali was a paragon of knowledge, wisdom, intellect and comprehension. He was a scholar of highest order whose words matched his deeds.

       He had deep insight in religion. He was a renowned thinker and visionary of Islam. He was a great commentator of Quran, a scholar of Hadith, a jurist, and a theologian. He lived the life of a true follower of the way of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). He was a teacher, a guardian, a spiritual instructor and a guide. His life was a testimony of his commitment to virtues. He was an obedient son, a supporting brother, a responsible husband and a compassionate father. He showed utmost respect to elders and love to youngsters. He was an ocean of generosity, and embodiment of good manners. He was totally committed to the values of Islam, and he spent his whole life defending them.
       He was such an orator whose oratory was a masterpiece of eloquence and fluency; and he was such a preacher whose preaching was exemplary in influence and efficacy. He was a man of principles, a man of determination and steadfastness, a humanist, an egalitarian, a sympathizer of Muslim ummah, and a supporter of human rights.
       He always gave preference to the communal interest, and national welfare and prosperity over his own private interests and personal comfort and relief. He was the promoter of the path of moderation and repugnant to the way of extremism. He was a learned scholar full with wisdom and intellect, and a visionary for the present and the future. He was an ocean of knowledge and wisdom, and a shining sun of devotion and piety. In strength, he was an incomparable man of his time. He was of legendary character in courage and bravery.
       During the battle of Jamal, Abul Qasim Muhammad displayed his astonishing qualities of bravery, courage and war genius. Imam ‘Ali, looking at his son’s military endeavors, expressed his sentiments of joy and pride in the following words: “You are my true son.”
13                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             The battle of Jamal was the first war that Imam Abul Qasim participated in. Imam ‘Ali handed him over the War banner and said: “March on my dear son.” Abul Qasim marched on and kept pushing forward in an intense fight. Meanwhile, the other side started raining arrows like swift showers of a heavy rain. Abul Qasim, in view of war strategy, stopped his advancement for a while and waited for the weakening of the attack. Seeing this, Imam ‘Ali addressed him in a loud voice and said: “Attack the enemy.” Responding to the call of his father, Abul Qasim executed a fatal and sudden attack on the enemy forces that caused them their worst losses. Watching his son perform the astonishing heroic deeds of bravery, Imam ‘Ali recited the following couplet: “Swing your sword like swordsmanship of your father. You will be acknowledged. There is no excellence in the fire of war if it is not turned to blazing.”14        
       Upon the conclusion of this war, Imam ‘Ali expressed his sentiments of happiness about his brave and devoted son’s superior performance in the battle by the following words: “Who ever wants to honor me in this world and the Hereafter he should honor my son Muhammad.”
15 
       During the battle of Siffin, when the enemy forces put heavy pressure on the army of Imam ‘Ali, he entrusted his son the responsibility to attack the enemy on all its wings. Responding to the order of his father, Abul Qasim Muhammad like a thunderbolt attacked the Right wing of the enemy, then the Left and then the Central wing. The fighting skills coupled with genius and brave leadership of Abul Qasim Muhammad overturned the rows of enemy. He inflicted on them mortal blows, and did not leave for them any choice but to retreat. After this, when Abul Qasim Muhammad returned, Imam ‘Ali was so happy for his son’s successful attacks that he got up from his seat, went forth to welcome his brilliant son, kissed his forehead and paid him tribute for his heroic deeds in the following historic words: “May your father be sacrificed for you. By God, you have delighted me by your this holy war in front of me.”
16
       Once a man came to Imam ‘Ali and said that the death is inevitable, and one day all of us have to leave this world. If it happens who would be our sovereign after you? Imam ‘Ali replied: “I can comment about only my closest and dearest ones. As far as Hasan is concerned, he is a man of generosity, and an incredible person among young people. But he is not a man of battlefield. During the times of war crisis he will not be able to serve you. And as far as my nephew ‘Abdullah ibn Ja’far concerned, he is a man of entertainment. However, my two sons, Husain and Muhammad, they are from me and I am from them.”
17
       In 40 AH, Imam ‘Ali was fatally injured in an attack caused by one of the Kharijites. During his last will, addressing his two elder sons Hasan and Husain Imam ‘Ali said: “I commend you for best relations with Muhammad. He is your brother and the son of your father. You know very well that your father loves him very much. You both also must love him, respect him and honor his rights.”
18
       Once a man said to Imam ‘Ali that you always expose Muhammad in places of fighting, and you always hurl him upon the throats of enemies. But you don’t do this with his brothers Hasan and Husain? Imam ‘Ali responded in the follow words: “He is my hand, and they are my two eyes. And every man always defends his eyes with his hand.”
19
       During the battle of Jamal, Imam ‘Ali entrusted the War banner to his son Abul Qasim Muhammad. Holding this banner, Abul Qasim attacked the enemy forces repeatedly, and caused them fatal sufferings. Watching Abul Qasim’s spirit and skills, ‘Ammar ibn Yasir, the companion of the Prophet, said: “O Abul Qasim, what a beautiful way you held the Banner today.”20
        On the occasion of Jamal, Abul Qasim Muhammad demonstrated astonishing strength, bravery and war skills. He caused the powerful enemy army heavy losses, and crushed them by his successive attacks. Looking at the great performance of Abul Qasim, Khuzaimah ibn Thabit, the companion of the Prophet, said to Imam ‘Ali: “listen, if there were anyone other than Muhammad, he would have suffered humiliation.”
21
        Khuzaimah ibn Thabit al-Ansari paid his tribute to Imam Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali on the day of Jamal in the following words:

       “O Muhammad, there is no flaw in your strength on this war-day, and you never turned your back during this fierce battle.”

       “Your father is ‘Ali the unique horseman, and the Prophet of Allah named you Muhammad.”

       “And you, praise be Allah, are superior and dominant in language, and you are most generous with what you own.”

       “And from among the Quraish you are the nearest to every virtue that they may wish, and from among them you are the superior in honoring your word.”

       “And from among them you are excellent in attacking the chest of a brave enemy with your spear, and from among them you are superior in dressing the heads of opponent fighters with a sharp sword made of Indian steel.”

       “Allah has refused to give your enemy any sitting space on earth, or any stair and point of ascent in the sky.”22

       ‘Umar ibn Harithah al-Ansari said about Imam Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali on the day of Jamal: “He is the namesake of the Prophet of Allah, and he is the picture of Imam ‘Ali.”23               

        ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, the Companion of the Prophet, said the following about Imam Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali: “By God, he is indeed, the best learned man, and I don’t know anyone like him in his time.”24
       Once ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab paid his tribute to Imam Abul Qasim in the following words: “In our times, we don’t know anyone like him.”
25
       Once, someone asked ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab about a serious religious question. He recommended him to go to Imam Abul Qasim Muhammad and ask him the question, then come back and inform about what he has answered. The man went to Imam Abul Qasim and found the answer to his problem. Then he returned to ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar and narrated him the response. Hearing the answer, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar paid his tribute to Imam Abul Qasim in this way: “They are the family that has been blessed by Allah in knowledge and wisdom.”
26
       Once, the then ruler of Makkah uttered in a gathering some harsh comments against Imam Abul Qasim Muhammad. By chance, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, the companion and first cousin of the Prophet, was present in that meeting. Hearing that comments, he got extremely angry and responded to the ruler in the following way: “By God, the father of Muhammad ibn ‘Ali is certainly superior to your father, his family is better than your family, and indeed he himself is better than you.”
27

       Then, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas left that gathering and went to another place where a large number of people gathered around him. Showing his deep respect for Imam Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas addressed the people in the following words: “By God, even a finger from among the fingers of Muhammad ibn ‘Ali is indeed dearer to me than this ruler. By God, Muhammad ibn ‘Ali is certainly much higher in intellect than him, more true to his word than him and more perfect in opinion than him. Muhammad ibn ‘Ali is superior in religion and most sincere in piety.”28

       In the beginning of 68th AH, Imam Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali was forced by the then ruler of Makkah to migrate from this city. In the meantime, the ruler of Syria ‘Abdul Malik ibn Marwan offered Imam Abul Qasim to settle down in Syria. While, Imam Abul Qasim was still thinking about this offer, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas sent a letter to ‘Abdul Malik ibn Marwan and informed him about greatness of Imam Abul Qasim in the following words: “A great man from among us has intended to migrate to your land. He is a pious man who does not commit any act of evil and who does not avenge injustice done against him. He is not impetuous and not ignorant. Rather he is always expeditious towards the truth and he is totally unaware of evil. He defends justice and hates acts of oppression.”29
       However, that year Imam Abul Qasim did not go to Syria. Rather he went to the city of Taif and settled down there. Soon after Imam Abul Qasim’s departure from Makkah, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas had to leave the city as well due to unbearable pressure from the ruling regime of this city. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas decided to migrate to Taif and stay there with Imam Abul Qasim. Before his departure to Taif, he said the following words: “O Allah, I make you my witness that my migration today is towards Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib.”
30
       Abu al-Tufail ‘Amir ibn Wathilah, the companion of the Prophet, said the following words about Imam Abul Qasim: “O Muhammad, O Muhammad of highest qualities, you are the Imam, you are al-Sayyid and you are entrusted by Allah to lead us.”
31

       ‘Abdullah ibn Hani said: “By God, Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali is a godly man. He is a man of pure taste, a man of kind nature, a man of virtuous manners, and a man of sincere intention. He is the best well-wisher of Muslim nation. He is a great man from among the pious people of Arabia. His nobility is well known and his lineage is established. He is son of Imam ‘Ali who was the first male that offered Prayer with the Prophet, may Allah shower His blessing and peace on him.”32

       Aiman the father of ‘Abd al- Wahid said. “Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali is superior to the people.”33  
       Ibn Shihab al- Zuhri said: “Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali was one of the highest intelligent men, and one of the most courageous people.”
34

       Abu al-Khattab ‘Umar ibn Hasan ibn ‘Ali said: “Al-Sayyid Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali, the noble, the Imam and the scholar.”35
       Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari said: “Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali was a scholarly religious man, a man of godliness, and a man of great knowledge.”
36

       Yahya ibn Abu Bakr al-‘Amiri said: “Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali was a man of superior knowledge and excellence; and he was a man of extraordinary godliness.”37 
       Ibn Khallikan said: “Abul Qasim Muhammad was a man of great knowledge and piety. And he was a man of great strength.”
38

       Jamal al-Din al-Atabaki said: “Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali was a pious and godly man. He was a man of true judgment. He had extraordinary vigorous strength.”39

       Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr al-Talmasani said: “Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali was a courageous, powerful and eloquent man. He was a scholar of Quran and Sunnah.”40

       Ibn Quddama al-Maqdisi said: “ Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali was a scholarly man of religiasty, knowledge and godliness. He was a man of strength, and he was a man of wisdom.”41

       Ibn al-‘Imad al-Hanbali said: “Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali was a man of superior knowledge, extraordinary godliness and utmost strength.”42 
       Abu Nu’aim al-Isbahani said: “And one of them is Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali, ibn al-Hanafiyyah, a pure wise Imam, an eloquent orator, a brightly shining star, a paragon of virtues from beginning to end, a man of mystical powers, and a scholar of intellectual expressions.”
43

       ‘Abdul Karim al-Shahrastani said the following: “Al- Sayyid Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali was a man of vast knowledge and great gnosis. He was a brilliant thinker and a true visionary about the outcomes of affairs.”44

       Abu Hatim Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Hibban al-Busaiti said: “Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali, ibn al-Hanafiyyah was one of the superior men of Ahl al-bait. He passed away in 73 AH in Radwa.”45

       Shihab al-Din Ya’qub ibn ‘Abdullah al-Hamawi said: “The Khark island is in the middle of Persian Gulf. I have visited it many times. In that island I have seen a grave. Many people pay visit to this grave, and make vows for it. The inhabitants of this island say that this is the grave of Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali, ibn al-Hanafiyyah.”46

       Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Abu Bakr al-Harawi said: “Khark is an island in Persian Gulf. In this island there is the grave of Abul Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib, ibn al-Hanafiyyah, and the graves of that group who was with him.”47       
                                                        __________________
REFERENCES:

(1)   Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari: Tarikh al-Umam wa al-Mulook, vol. 3, pp. 162-163; Muhammad ibn Sa’d: al-Tabaqat, vol. 3, pp. 12-13; Ibn al-Jauzi: al-Muntazam, vol. 5, p. 69.

(2)   Ibid.

(3)   Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Madinat Dimashq, vol. 54, p. 333; Ahmad ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri: Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. 2, p. 145; Ahmad ibn ‘Ali ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani: Fath al-Bari, vol. 9, p. 128.

(4)   Al-Baladhuri: Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. 2, p. 145; Muhammad ibn ‘Isa al-Tirmidhi: al-Jami’ al-Sahih, vol. 5, p. 360; Al-Shaikh al-Mufid Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Nu’man: al-Irshad, pp. 159-160.

(5)   Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani: al-Isabah, vol. 4, p. 283; ‘Ali ibn al-Husain al-Isbahani: Kitab al-Aghani, vol. 7, pp. 233-235.

(6)   Al-Hakim Abu ‘Abdillah al-Nisaburi: Ma’rifat ‘Uloom al-Hadith, p. 189; Muhammad ibn Sa’d: al-Tabaqat, vol. 5, p. 45; Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn al-Husain al-Baihaqi: Dalail al-Nubuwwah, vol. 6, p. 380; Abu Mansoor al-Dailami: Musnad al-Firdaus, vol. 4, p. 130; Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn ‘Ali al-Khatib al-Baghdadi: Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 11, p. 218; Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Madinat Dimashq, vol. 54, p. 327; Al-Qadi Abu Hanifah al-Nu’man ibn Muhammad:Sharh al-Akhbar, vol. 2, p. 16; Idris ‘Imad al-Din: ‘Uyoon al-Akhbar, vol. 4, p. 202; Muhammad ibn Yoosuf al-Kanji: Kifayat al-Talib, p. 267.

(7)   Abu Bakr al-Bazzar: al-Musnad, vol. 2, p.246; Abu Ja’far Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tahawi: Sharh Ma’ani al-Aathar, vol. 4, p. 336; Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Madinat Dimashq, vol. 54, p. 328.

(8)   Ahmad ibn Hanbal: al-Musnad, vol. 2, p. 135; Muhammad ibn Isma’il al-Bukhari: al-Adab al-Mufrad, p. 124; al-Tarikh al-Kabir, vol. 1/1, p. 182; Abu ‘Isa al-Tirmidhi: al-Jami’ al-Sahih, vol. 4, p. 215; Abu Dawood Sulaiman ibn Ash’ath al-Sajistani: al-Sunan, vol. 4, p. 292; Abu Bakr al-Bazzar: al-Musnad, vol. 2, p. 247; Abu Ya’la Ahmad ibn ‘Ali al-Musali: al-Musnad, vol. 1, p. 159; Muhammad ibn Sa’d: al-Tabaqat, vol. 5, p. 45; Abu Bakr ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Shaibah, al-Kitab al-Musannaf, vol. 5, p. 264; Al-Hakim Abu ‘Abdillah al-Nisaburi, al-Mustadrak, vol. 4, p. 278; Abu Bakr al-Baihaqi: al-Sunan al-Kubra, vol. 9, pp. 520-521; Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Doolabi: Kitab al-Kuna wa al-Asma, vol. 1, p. 5; Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Madinat Dimashq, vol. 54, p. 329; Abu Ja’far al-Tahawi: Sharh Ma’ani al-Aathar, vol. 4, p. 335; Al- Baladhuri: Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. 1, p. 539; Ibn Abi al-Dunya: Maqtal al-Husain, p. 100; Abu Zakariyya al-Nawawi: Tahdhib al-Asma, vol. 1, p. 88.

(9)   Ahmad ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri: Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. 2, p. 145.

(10)Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Madinat Dimishq, vol. 54, p. 325; Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Dhahabi: Siyar A’lam al-Nubala, vol. 4, p. 11; Taqiyy al-Din Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Fasi: al-‘Iqd al-Thamin, vol. 2, p. 275.

(11)Muhammad ibn Sa’d: al-Tabaqat, vol. 5, p. 47.

(12)Muhammad ibn Isma’il al-Bukhari: al-Sahih, 769.

(13)Al-Shaikh al-Mufid Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Nu’man: al-Fusool al-Mukhtarah, vol. 2, p. 85; Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Tusi: Kitab al-Ghaibah, p.16.

(14)Ahmad ibn A’tham al-kufi: al-Futooh, vol. 1, p. 478.

(15)Muhammad ibn Ya’qoob al-Kulaini: al-Usool min al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 104.

(16)Muhammad Baqir al-Majlisi: Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 42, pp. 105-106.

(17)‘Abdullah ibn Muslim ibn Qutaibah al-Dinawari: al-Imamah wa al-Siyasah, vol. 1, p. 161.

(18)Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari: Tarikh al-Umam wa al-Mulook, vol. 3, p. 158; Abu al-‘Abbas Muhammad ibn Yazid al-Mubarrad: al-Kamil, vol. 3, p. 243; ‘Ali ibn Husain al-Mas’udi: Murooj al-Dhahab, vol. 2, p. 425; Abu Talib Yahya ibn al-Husain: Taisir al-Matalib, p. 79.

(19)‘Abd al-Hamid ibn Abi al-Hadid: Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. 5. p. 958.

(20)Al-Shaikh al-Mufid: al-Jamal, p. 361.

(21)‘Abd al-Hamid ibn Abi al-Hadid: Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. 1, p. 81.

(22)Ibid, vol. 1, pp. 81-82.

(23)Ibid, vol. 1, p. 129.

(24)Ahmad ibn A’tham al-Kufi: al-Futooh, vol. 3, p. 394.

(25)Ahmad ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri: Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. 2, p. 570.

(26)Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Madinat Dimashq, vol. 54, p. 332.

(27)Ahmad ibn A’tham al-Kufi: al-Futooh, vol. 3, p. 365.

(28)Yoosuf ibn Ahmad al-Yaghmoori: Noor al-Qabas, p. 68.

(29)Ahmad ibn A’tham al-Kufi: al-Futooh, vol. 3, pp. 257-258.

(30)Ahmad ibn ‘Ali al-Maqrizi: Imta’ al-Asma’, vol. 12, p. 248.

(31)‘Abd al-Qahir al-Baghdadi: al-Farq bain al-Firaq, p. 53; Sa’d ibn ‘Abdullah al-Ash’ari: al-Maqalat, p. 29.

(32)Ahmad ibn A’tham al-Kufi: al-Futooh, vol. 3, p. 275.

(33)Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Madinat Dimashq, vol. 54, p. 332.

(34)Idris ‘Imad al-Din: ‘Uyoon al-Akhbar, vol. 4, p. 203.

(35)Abu al-Khattab ‘Umar ibn Hasan ibn ‘Ali: Kitab al-Nibras, p. 10.

(36)Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari: al-Muntakhab, p. 628.

(37)Yahya ibn Abu Bakr al-‘Amiri: al-Riyad al-Mustatabah, p. 175.

(38)Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr ibn Khallikan: Wafayat al-A’yan, vol. 4, pp. 169-170.

(39)Jamal al-Din Yoosuf al-Atabaki: al-Nujoom al-Zahirah, vol. 1, pp. 202-203.

(40)Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr al-Tilmasani: al-Jauharah, vol. 2, p. 240.

(41)Muwaffaq al-Din ibn Quddamah al-Maqdisi: al-Tabyin fi Ansab al-Qurashiyyin, pp. 135-136.

(42)Ibn al-‘Imad, Abd al-Hayy ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Hanbali: Shadharat al-Dhahab, vol. 1, pp. 330, 331.

(43)Abu Nu’aim Ahmad ibn ‘Abdullah al-Isbahani: Hilyat al-Auliya, vol. 3, p. 174.

(44)Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Karim al-Shahrastani: al-Milal wa al-Nihal, vol. 1, p. 199.

(45)Abu Hatim Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Hibban al-Busaiti: Mashahir ‘Ulama al-Amsar, p. 79; Ibn al-Jazri, Shams al-Din Muhammad ibn Muhammad: Ghayat al-Nihayah, vol. 2, p. 204; Jalal al-Din al-Sayyuti: Is’af al-Mubatta, p.26; Ahmad ibn ‘Ali ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani: Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol. 9, p. 354; Abu Ishaq al-Shirazi: Tabaqat al-Fuqaha, p. 32; Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-‘Alawi: Kitab al-Tadhkirah, vol. 3, p. 1569; Taqiyy al-Din Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Fasi: al-‘Iqd al-Thamin, vol. 2, p. 275; Muhammad ibn Isma’il al-Bukhari: al-Tarikh al-Kabir, vol. 1/1, p. 182; al-Tarikh al-Saghir, p. 77; Muhy al-Din ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi: Tahdhib al-Asma, vol. 1, p. 88.

(46)Shihab al-Din Yaqoot ibn ‘Abdullah al-Hamawi: Mu’jam al-Buldan, vol. 2, p. 387.

(47)Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Abu Bakr al-Harawi: al-Isharat ila Ma’rifat al-Ziyarat, p. 83.           

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